VEROVANJE U BOGA I MENTALNO ZDRAVLJE

Autor: Dr Aleksandar Pavlovic Kreni

 


Da li je verovanje u Boga oblik psihičkog poremećaja?

 

Godine 2006., Ričard Dokins (Richard Dawkins), profesor biologije sa Oksforda i jedan od vodećih svetskih zagovornika ateizma, objavio je knjigu ‘God Delusion’. Preko noći, knjiga je dostigla status best-selera postavši druga najprodavanija knjigu na Amazonu i četvrta na listi popularnosti Njujork Tajmsa. Dokins u toj knjizi tvrdi da je verovanje u Boga  – sumanuta ideja (delusion), koja je osnovna karakteristika psihoza. Psihoze, kao sto su shizofrenia i paranoja, su najteži oblik psihijatriskih oboljenja gde se gubi dodir sa stvarnošću. Ovo je doprinelo širenju uverenja da se verovanje u Boga na neki način može uporediti sa duševnim oboljenjima.
Dve godine kasnije, 2008, profesor psihijatrije i bivši predsednik Kraljevskog Udruženja Psihijatara (Royal College of Psychiatrists) Velike Britanije, Andrju Sims (Andrew Sims) je objavio knjigu ‘Is Faith a Delusion?’. Sims je svetski priznat stručnjak u oblasti psihopatologije, grane psihijatrije koja proučava i opisuje poremećaje psihičkih iskustava – kao sto su opažanje, mišljenje, koncentracija, govor i slično. Sumanute ideje su vrste poremećaja mišljenja i kao takve u domenu proučavanja psihopatologije.
Karl Jasper (1883 – 1969), nemački psihijatar i filozof i utemeljivač moderne psihopatologije, okarakterisao je sumanute ideje kao poremećaje mišljenja koji moraju zadovoljiti određene uslove. Da bi se nešto okarakterisalo kao sumanuta ideja, nije dovoljno samo da bude netačna i ima neverovatnu sadržinu, već mora da poseduje određene osobine koje se u stručnom jeziku psihijatrije nazivaju – forme.
Tako, sumanute ideje moraju posedovati sledeće osobine:
1. Sumanuta ideja odstupa od konteksta društvene zajednice u kojoj pojedinac živi i ličnog iskustva i razvoja. Na primer, ne možemo reći da je verovanje pripadnika afričkih plemena u duhove sumanuta ideja samo po sebi, mada može to da bude u zavisnosti od prisustva ostalih uslova, koji svi moraju biti ispunjeni.
2. Objašnjenje za sumanutu ideju je zasnovano na sumanutim dokazima ili uzrocima verovanja. Sims daje sledeći primer iz svoje prakse: Sredovečni covek veruje da ga vara žena. On veruje u to zato sto je sijalica pregorela kad je otvorio vrata. Ona njega zaista vara, ali njegovo verovanje je ipak sumanuta ideja, jer je zasnovano na sumanutom dokazu.
3. Pojedinac nema uvid u netačnost svoje sumanute ideje. Ako neko i malo sumnja u ideju u koju veruje –  to po definiciji nije sumanuta ideja. Osoba koja ima sumanute ideje, ne samo da veruje bezrezervno u tu ideju, vec ne može da razume kako i drugi ljudi ne veruju u nešto tako očigledno. Sumanuta ideja se prihvata kao činjenica o kojoj se ne može kritički, sa distance, raspravljati. Ako govorimo o ‘primarnim’ sumanutim idejama, onima  koje nisu u nastale na pozadini poremecaja opažanja – kao sto su halucinacije, onda su one istinite zbog toga što su istinite – ovde je u pitanju kružna logika.
4. Konkretnost (doslovnost)  sumanute ideje. Psihički zdravi ljudi, kao i najveći broj osoba sa psihičkim poremecajima, poseduju sposobnost simboličkog mišljenja. Ponekad, osobe obolele od najtežih psihotičnih oboljenja izgube tu mogućnost i njihovi misaoni procesi postaju konkretni, što znači da doslovno shvataju svoje sumanute ideje. Tako na primer, osoba može doslovno da shvati izreku kao sto je ‘predati srce Bogu’, što, dalje, može da ima tragične posledice.

Istovremeno, važno je istaći da postoje sumanute ideje koje su po svojoj sadržini religiozne. U jednom istraživanju sumanutih verovanja, čak 57% je imalo religiozni sadržaj. Naravno, reći, na osnovu ovog zapažanja, da je najveći broj religioznih ideja sumanut, je samo po sebi logička greška (greška u mišljenju i zaključivanju). Tako da ovo ne znači da su među religijskim verovanjima sumanute ideje česte, već da su među sumanutim idejama religijski sadržaji česti. Kao što je napomenuto gore, sadržaj ne čini ideju sumanutom, već forma (oblik ili način) mišljenja.
U zaključku, iako religiozna ideja može biti sumanuta i shodno tome oblik psihičkog poremećaja,to je veoma retko. U velikoj većini, verovanje u Boga ne zadovoljava kriterijume koje su prihvaćeni u modernoj psihijatriji. Shodno tome, Dawkins-ov opis verovanja u Boga kao sumanute ideje je netačan i usmeren stvaranju negativnog javnog mnjenja prema osobama koje veruju u Boga. Sims u svojoj knjizi ide i korak dalje, navodeći meta-analizu (sintezu, u ovom slučaju 35, nezavisnih studija), objavljenu 1992. u prestižnom međunarodnom stručnom časopisu American Journal of Psychiatry, u kojoj Larson i saradnici navode pozitivan odnos između psihičkog zdravlja i verovanja u Boga.
Koenig, McCullough i Larson su 2001. objavili knjigu Handbook of Religion and Health, u izdanju Oksfordskog Univerziteta baziranu na 1200 istraživanja i 400 sistematskih studija, u kojoj detaljno izlažu odnos između verovanja u Boga i zdravlja. Oni zaključuju da verovanje u Boga doprinosi mentalnom zdravlju, psihičkoj stabilnosti i opštem stepenu zadovoljstva. Na osnovu epidemioloških istraživanja navedenih u knjizi, specifične posledice verovanja u Boga na psihičko zdravlje su: manja učestalost anksioznosti, alkoholizma i kriminaliteta, zatim manja učestalost i brži oporavak od depresije, manja učestalost psihoza i samoubistava. Takođe, psihometrijska merenja su identifikovala veći stepen samopoštovanja, nade, optimizma i doživljaja sopstvene vrednosti među osobama koje veruju u Boga.
Ova istraživanja govore u prilog tome da verovanje u Boga ne samo da nije oblik psihičkog poremećaja, već i da ima pozitivan uticaj na razvoj i očuvnje mentalnog zdravlja.

Dr Aleksandar Pavlović
Specijalizant Psihijatrije i Psihoterapije,
Jorkšir, Engleska

 

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